To most Italians, Berlusconi’s antics are old hat, although even the Vatican, which has generally accommodated Il Cavaliere’s politics, has expressed concern with his morality. And on TV, Silvio gave a forceful defense claiming that it would offend his dignity to pay for sex. Even Ruby, who has admitted that “Daddy” has paid for an apartment, clothes, jewelry and spending money, claims that he is the first man who hasn’t asked for sex. I've been having fun with Silvio B in the last few entries, but I want to be clear that I consider myself a guest in Italy AND I love Italy. So this mess saddens me. I am
often asked why Italians put up with their scandalous PM, and frankly I don't know. There are two theories: (1) they like him and his style of living, and (2) they don't see an alternative. Both of these answers are depressing to be sure, and seem to point to something in Italians that Americans cannot understand. There is a sense of pessimism, or cynicism, that I often hear expressed and it leads to a kind of resignation. You see it in the smallest things: the ubiquitous cigarette smoke on the street, the incessant line jumping, the petty littering, the unfixed washing machine, and the unreturned call. Maybe this "caso Ruby" thing will shake things up a bit? Sadly, I doubt it. After all, when a third of the Italian legislators were indicted in the early 1990s, it was Berlusconi to whom Italy turned. One of the more benign stereotypes of Americans is that of the slightly goofy naive optimist. And not all Italians shrug their shoulders at the latest scandal. There are at least two groups who are affected by the misbehavior of il cavaliere: women, above all, and workers. I'll start with the latter.
The real issue, as Fabrizio, Fausto and Valter will explain is that while their leader was having sex and drug parties at one of this three villas, he was neglecting his duty to secure the welfare of the people and the rights of workers. Italy takes the rights of workers seriously, the right to organize, to bargain collectively, and to strike (scioperere) are enshrined in their post-Fascist Constitution. Some believe these rights are too freely exercised, particularly the last one. Strikes here are announced well in advance and one plans travel, for example, around scheduled train strikes etc. And among the most historic site of labor history is certainly FIAT’s Mirafiori plant in Torino.
Italy's growth rate, I'm told, is a mere 1% and traditionally protectionist Italy is now facing a growing encounter with globalization (globalizzazione). I don’t understand the story completely, but the new FIAT management, led by CEO Sergio Marchionne (whom, Valter complained was hugged by Obama, when he visited Chrysler last year). Marchionne has offered to invest huge sums to retool Mirafiori as part of a plan to produce Jeeps in Italy, but insisted on some “give-backs” from the union. The terms didn’t strike me as too draconion: limits on break times, additional guaranteed overtime,
and promises to limit striking. FIAT had already negotiated a deal with workers at its plant in the job- scarce south, and recently a referendum was to be held in the more militant north. As it turned out, the workers voted to approve the deal, although the balance was achieved with the support of FIAT's white collar employees. However, one of the unions, FIOM-CGIL, in the federation,which bargain together. rejected it. Marchionne decided he had his approval and moved to block the dissenting union from further organizing activity in its plant. This divide-and-conquer strategy is apparently unprecedented. Not only was the disenfranchisement of the leading leftist union a particular outrage, but more importantly, the idea of dealing with different plants instead of a national bargain was unprecedented. Moreover, there was already a national agreement in effect that had been previously negotiated. These national agreements are always negotiated with the government acting as mediator. Where was Berlusconi when the workers needed him? Partying, perhaps. Berlusconi declined to intervene, and anyway he had already shown his position when he declared FIAT “would be justified in pulling out of Italy” if the workers didn’t ratify the new accord.
Is the US the Mexico of Italy?
But where would FIAT go if it pulled out of Italy? Quite possibly, according to Marchione, to the US. FIAT's outsourcing jobs to Poland and Serbia is one thing, but to the USA? Here we see how the process of has made the US, Italy’s Mexico!
Women in Italy
I've already mentioned the sorry state of women in Italy. Recently, Berlusconi advised women that the path to success is to marry a rich man! I can't say how many women take this advice, but coupled with the fur coats and cigarettes, it sometimes feels like the 1950s here. Worst is the portrayal of women (and men) on Italian TV, which is almost totally controlled by the PM. Berlusconi built a media empire, in part by populating TV quiz shows and news with beautiful sexy young "veline" (literally, scraps of paper) being leered at by middle-aged men. I'm told that the selection of the annual "velina" on Striscia Noticia, a news parody on Berlusconi's Canale 5, is an event which young women eagerly follow and for which they vigorously compete.
Maybe I'm judging Italy by puritanical standards, or worse, maybe I am trying to score political points, but there are facts that should be considered seriously. Italy ranks extraordinarily low on almost all standards of gender equality. According to the World Economic Forum, no hotbed of socialist feminism, Italy ranks in 87th place in women's labor participation, and 121st in wage parity worldwide, and 74th overall. In the words of its 2010 Global Gender Gap Report, "Italy continues to be one of the lowest-ranking countries in the EU and deteriorates further over the last year."
So it was encouraging to learn that women throughout Italy, and beyond, were organizing a "Giorno della Donne" -- a day of the women -- to demand respect for their dignity, and the resignation of Silvio Berlusconi. Taking a slogan from a book by Italian-Jewish Holocaust survivor, Primo Levi, "Se non ora, quando?" (If not now, when?)
We just happened to be in Siena last Sunday when the manifestazione was scheduled. Ironically, I suppose, the demonstration was held in the beautiful Piazza Salimbeni, under the watchful eye of Archdeacon Sallustio Bandini, and in front of the Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, the oldest bank in the world (1474) AND the place where Berlusconi kept a special account to compensate Ruby and the bunga bunga girls.